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Biases: Cognitive and Confirmation

Meyers Briggs: Pop Psychology


From Freud to Positive Psychology

Problems with words


  • Though many variations of these words exist, we will use them to differentiate between comprehend (being taught something to the point of understanding) and apprehend (learning something to the extent that your mind makes the final leap to making meaning.)


  • We tend not to think of these as different words, but they are, and perhaps may be the reason you are not doing as well as you could in classes.
  • To recall something is to have some outside influence stimulate your memory, such as a multiple choice test that presents the possible answer to you and you merely have to recall the correct answer.
  • To remember something though means doing so without an outside and direct stimulus.


  • We tend to use these words to mean "that's just the way things are, no explanation or reason needed."
  • Example: It's natural to be jealous. Actually, no it's not. Quite the opposite, the creation of civilization and of property 10,000 years ago spurred people to be jealous. See the Mosuo of China