Mini-Research #2


  • To learn word control and quoting sources of research papers.

Don't over think this assignment;
it's similar to working out;
just do the routine.


  • Re-Write Mini-Research 1
  • Three changes need made:
      Add a second quoted source
    1. Create better lead-ins to the two quotes
    2. Remove Pus words.

The Skeletal Structure

  • Each of the numbers below is its own paragraph.
  • You'll use this structure throughout the entire course.
  1. Introduction
  2. Scope/Summary
  3. Literature review
  4. Theory
  5. Analysis 1
  6. Analysis 2
  7. Conclusion

1. Add a second quote

  • Add a quote to either Analysis paragraph.
  • Use any article (that has an author's name) that can help you discuss the paragraph's main point.
  • Add that source to the Works Cited so you have only the two quoted sources in the Works Cited.
  • Only use this source for your Works Cited:
    • Valencia MLA (Scroll to the bottom for website citations.)
    • If I mark something wrong on your Works Cited, your only defense is to show me how you followed Valencia MLA.

The point of the quoted sources

  • This is not essay writing
  • Sources are used to ADD other voices to the research paper
  • Sources in research are not to help you prove your point.

Stop Whining!

  • To my ears, essays whine...a lot! As if they are pleading for someone to listen.
  • In research, we--
    • present the research: Scope, Lit Review, Theory.
    • present the findings: Analysis 1 and Analysis 2
    • use quoted sources: to connect the research to other people's research.

2. Set-up quotes correctly

  • There are many ways of integrating quotes in a paper.
  • We are using one way, and only one way, the whole term.
  • Lead-in sentence: "quote."
    • The Lead-in sentence must read as a Full Sentence AS IF the colon is a period.

Example of setting up quote:

  • A full sentence giving the first word, usually the author's name, from the works cited citation, and maybe the article name, and the general idea of the quote that will follow: "the actual word-for-word quote"
  • Alan Crowe in his article "Doggy Friends" suggests that when dogs first meet, they should do so in a place new to both of them: "Introduce the dogs in a neutral location that is unfamiliar to both dogs, such as a park."

3. Remove pus

Verbotenmeaning Forbidden in German

  1. be
  2. is
  3. am
  4. are
  5. was
  6. were
  7. been
    • These first seven are the "to-be" verbs and cause many errors
  8. it
  9. thing and things
    • Numbers 8 and 9 create an ambiguity that never should occur in a paper.
  10. get
  11. gets
  12. got
  13. goes
    • People use these last four as an easy fall back from not using the first nine. Also, they sound unprofessional, and one aim of an education is to professionalize, which in this class means helping you form a bilingualism of both your everyday-speak and your ability to use a professional language.

Why take those words away

  • We'll cover that in Live Online on Wednesday

The Penalty

  • For most assignments after mini research 1, even one pus word is an automatic redo.

Avoid the word Becomes

  • Be careful of the word becomes such as in the following example:
    • Every day becomes a different challenge.
  • The word becomes means "something morphs or grows into something elses," such as a boy becoming (morphing into) a man or a caterpillar becoming (morphing into) a butterfly.
  • Here the word is awkward because days do not morph into a different challenge. A day may have, during its course, a different challenge, or the whole day may seem challenging.
  • If a DAY could morph into a DIFFERENT CHALLENGE, we would no longer need the term "day," and instead we could say Different Challenge:
    1. Every day different challenge, I wake up and go to work
    2. Unless clouds hang in the sly, the sun comes up every day different challenge.

Ways to fix Pus words

  • To easily fix pus, begin the sentence with the last part of the sentence.
    • Everyday is a different challenge.
  • Different challenges rise every day.
  • Different challenges confront us everyday.
  • Different challenges enter our lives daily.

WARNING: Pus can hide under the skin/paper

  • A sentence is infected with a "hidden pus" if one of my peers' quickest fixes of your sentence is to add pus;
  • "hidden pus" counts as if you had written the pus.
  • Beware of contractions, such as isn't, they're, and she's, etc.

Why not use those words?

  • You can learn more about why not to use to-be verbs by googling "e-prime" or "e-priming."
  • I, however, deny the use of those words to force you to consider every word you use.

Wrapping it up

  • Double check that the Works Cited is correct
  • In Word, use ctrl+f to open the find box then search each pus word .
  • Quoted sources can use pus; you cannot.
  • Check formatting of the entire paper.
  • Assignment name: LastnameMiniResearch2.docx
  • Submit via emal.