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Readings Assignment
  1. Quiz on the readings

  2. Mini-paper
    • Use one to three Romantic ideals and discuss how the Romantics would have viewed your subject.
  1. Naturalism
    • The principles of the natural sciences should be used for social science.
  2. Phenomenalism
    • Only observable phenomena provide valid information.
  3. Nominalism
    • Words of scientific value have fixed and single meanings.
    • The existence of a word does not imply the existence of what it describes.
  4. Atomism or Reductivisim
    • Things can be studied by reducing them to their smallest parts (and the whole is the sum of the parts).
  5. Scientific laws
    • The goal of science is to create generalised laws (which are useful for such as prediction).
  6. Facts and values
    • Facts are to be sought.
    • Values have no meaning for science.
  7. Three stages of knowledge

      Comte's three stages

      Stage 1

      Stage 2

      Stage 3

      Stage of knowledge

      Fictitious knowledge

      Metaphysical knowledge

      Scientific knowledge

      Foundations of belief

      Faith and custom


      Rational logic

      Social base